Share this article Share The researchers searched the scientific literature and found 24 studies conducted between and that met their main criterion of involving an experimenter who actively manipulated participants' attention, memory and awareness of eating food. All of the studies were tightly controlled and monitored, but each had different methods of manipulating participants' attention and awareness. For example, in one study, adult men and women watched TV while eating. In another, participants snacked on pistachio nuts and experimenters immediately removed the nut shells from view.
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Yet, a new study by researchers Michael A. In data collected between the years and , the researchers found that women athletes are actually covered less in media now than they were in In , only 3. Instead of female athletes being framed as sexual objects, they are now predominantly idealized for their ability to juggle athletics with roles as mothers or girlfriends—the socially suitable, fundamental roles for women in relation to men.
Thanks to Title IX, millions more girls and women are playing sports than ever. What is interesting about this decline is the way it seems to correlate with a kind of gender respectability politics. Women have been covered less, it seems, because sports announcers are no longer allowed to turn them into sexual objects with impunity.
It is not surprising, they add, that two of the three networks have the same male sports anchors now as they did in Sexism in media manifests for female athletes in myriad ways—they are their most appealing when they can be idealized in the two roles men find most relatable: sex object and caregiver.
I suspect what we have here is nationalism trumping sexism.