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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. There is a limited understanding of coping involving other people, particularly within sport, despite athletes potentially spending a lot of time with other people, such as their coach.
Coaches and athletes from the same dyad completed a measure of dyadic coping, coach—athlete relationship, and stress appraisals. We tested an Actor—Partner Interdependence Mediation Model to account for the non-independence of dyadic data.
These actor—partner analyses revealed differences between athletes and coaches. Although the actor effects were relatively large compared to partner effects, perceptions of relationship quality demonstrated little impact on athletes.
The mediating role of relationship quality was broadly as important as dyadic coping for coaches. These findings provide an insight in to how coach—athlete dyads interact to manage stress and indicate that relationship quality is of particular importance for coaches, but less important for athletes.
In order to improve perceptions of relationship quality among coaches and athletes, interventions could be developed to foster positive dyadic coping among both coaches and athletes, which may also impact upon stress appraisals of challenge and threat.
Keywords: dyads, relationships, systemic-transactional model, coping, threats, challenges Introduction Participating in sport can be stressful see Arnold and Fletcher, for a review , so it is important that athletes cope effectively with any stress encountered.
Indeed, dyadic accounts of appraisals and coping, which explore how two people within the same stressful incident evaluate stress and subsequently interact to cope are therefore needed Folkman, ; Herzberg, Due to the nature of sport, athletes and coaches are likely to be involved in the same stressful encounters i.
Dyadic Coping A partnership that operates in many sports involves a coach and an athlete Jackson et al. Indeed, Jackson et al. Furthermore, coach—athlete interactions also influence technical and physical competencies Jowett and Poczwardowski, , in addition to being related to psychological constructs such as coping Nicholls et al.
To date, however, there are no published accounts of dyadic coping between a coach and his or her athlete. Essentially, dyadic coping relates to the way in which a couple interacts to cope Berg and Upchurch, The primary purpose of dyadic coping is to reduce stress for both members Bodenmann, , There are some similarities between dyadic coping and a construct previously examined in the sport psychology literature, namely, social support.
Both constructs are associated with stress reducing qualities i. Nevertheless, there are key conceptual differences between dyadic coping and social support. For example, dyadic coping is exclusively concerned with the way a couple interact to cope, whereas social support is much broader and includes support relating to boosting pleasant emotions or esteem, providing informational advice, or practical assistance Freeman et al.
As such, social support may be provided in the absence of stress e. Furthermore, an athlete may receive social support from a variety of different individuals e. It is important to note that Lazarus and Folkman conceived coping at the dispositional and process levels.
In particular, they argued that dispositional coping i. Assessing coping at the dispositional level represents an accurate method of assessing trends in behavior over a long period of time Fleeson, and may also reveal habitual or generalized patterns of coping behavior that process assessments fail to capture Hurst et al.
This is paramount when very little is known about a particular type of coping e.
There is an emerging trend of assessing coping at the dispositional level within the sport psychology literature to assess how coping is related to constructs such as cognitive-social maturity Nicholls et al. Dyadic coping is triggered when one member of the dyad communicates stress to the other via verbal or non-verbal communications, with the other partner responding with some form of dyadic coping Bodenmann, , As such, Bodenmann argued that dyadic coping is interactive and reciprocal.
Bodenmann distinguished between positive and negative types of dyadic coping. Positive dyadic coping includes three distinct types of coping: supportive dyadic coping i.
Negative dyadic coping involves hostile, ambivalent, or superficial responses to the other person and represents support that is insincere or unwillingly provided Rottmann et al.
Although scholars are yet to examine dyadic coping between coaches and athletes, there is an emerging body of dyadic coping within the relationship literature, among married couples. For example, dyadic coping was a stronger predictor of relationship satisfaction than individual coping Herzberg, In another study, Rottmann et al.
Negative dyadic coping was adversely associated with outcomes for both partners, whereas common dyadic coping was associated with superior relationship quality and fewer depressive symptoms.
As such, it appears that dyadic coping may influence the relationship quality between two people. Within a sport setting, Tamminen et al. This includes four constructs: closeness i.
Although there are a number of adaptive outcomes of a stronger coach—athlete relationship, at the present time, little is known about how dyadic coping may be associated with the coach—athlete relationship. As dyadic coping includes interactions between two people, it is plausible that this form of coping will be related to relationship quality.
Further, little is known about whether dyadic coping or indeed the coach—athlete relationship is associated with stress appraisals. Given that the coach—athlete relationship is related to emotions i. Research is required to test whether there is an association between dyadic coping and appraisals experienced within the same dyad, in order to assess this assertion.
Stress Appraisals The way in which a person evaluates the significance of a situation in regards to his or her personal goals, which might be endangered is known as stress appraisal Lazarus, Athletes can anticipate either a loss or gain occurring Lazarus, Anticipated losses, such sustaining an injury or losing an upcoming match, can be referred to as threat appraisals.
Alternatively, if an athlete anticipates some form of gain such as impressing a selector or winning a monetary award, this would be considered a challenge appraisal Lazarus, Guided by the BPSM Blascovich, , scholars recently explored the implications of challenge and threat perceptions among athletes.
Challenge states were associated with superior performance, less anxiety, and conscious processing than threat states Moore et al. Furthermore, appraisals of challenge and threat states can be manipulated in order to maximize performance. In particular, Moore et al. Understanding more about the antecedents of challenge and threat appraisals, such as dyadic coping and the coach—athlete relationship quality, may provide psychologists with additional mechanisms to manipulate the occurrence of challenge states, other than those tested by Moore et al.
Summary and Hypotheses We hypothesized a positive association between positive dyadic coping and relationship quality, but a negative path between negative dyadic coping and relationship quality. This is because scholars previously reported an association between positive dyadic and relationship quality, whereas negative dyadic coping was negatively associated with relationship quality among couples dealing with breast cancer Rottmann et al.
We also predicted a positive path from relationship quality to challenge appraisals, but a negative path from relationship quality to threat appraisals.
It is acknowledged that appraisals are usually modeled to precede coping in many studies i.
Conceptually, Lazarus and Folkman viewed stress and coping as a reciprocal and dynamic constructs. As such Lazarus and Folkman theorized that appraisals generate coping, in addition to coping influencing subsequent stress appraisals. We hypothesized positive paths between positive dyadic coping and challenge, along with negative dyadic coping and threat, but negative paths between positive dyadic coping and threat, in addition to negative dyadic coping and challenge.
|Account Options||Lavallee Eds. Social psychology in sport pp.|
|However, given the multi-disciplinary nature of modern elite coaching, there is a scarcity of research focusing on the relationship between coaches and other members of the coaching and support team.|
|Passar bra ihop||Introduction Over the past decade a rapid increase in research has taken place concerning the role of social support in youth sport.|
|Find a copy in the library||Through the contributions of an international group of established scholars and creative young minds, Social Psychology in Sport offers readers a global perspective, a broad base of knowledge, and the latest thinking on topics such as social relationships, communication, coach leadership, team cohesion, motivation and motivational climate, audience effects, and morality. This text allows readers to gain insight into the interactions and dynamics that affect sport performance and the sport experience for youth and adults.|
|Resource Lists||Chris Harwood Professional background Dr. His personal research and teaching interests lie in the area of achievement motivation, optimal performance and talent development environments, and educational consulting, with a particular focus on social psychological issues in youth sport.|
Researchers from the sport literature found a link between adaptive forms of coping and challenge appraisals, whereas less adaptive forms of coping are associated with threat appraisals e. As such, it is plausible that dyadic coping and appraisals would be related.
An APIM is able to simultaneously estimate the impact of actor effects horizontal within a group and partner effects diagonal from one group on another. Typically, APIMs contain predictor and outcome variables.
We hypothesized, however, that the relationships between our predictor dyadic coping and outcome stress appraisal would be mediated by perceived relationship quality.
The sample consisted of dyads who were involved in team sports and 26 dyads from individual sports. The athletes reported a mean playing experience of 9.
The mean relationship duration was 1. The DCI is a item questionnaire that measures positive and negative dyadic coping.